Present perfect 1
Example situation :
David is looking for his key. He can't find it.
He has lost his key.
He has lost his key = He lost it recently, and he still doesn't have it.
Have/has lost is the present perfect simple:
I / we / they / you
have (= I've)
he / she / it
finished, lost, done, been
The present perfect simple is
have/has + past participle. The past participle often ends in -ed (finished/decided), but many important verbs are irregular (lost/done/written).
When we use the present perfect, there is a connection with now. The action in the past has a result now:
- Where's your key? I don't know. I've lost it. (= I don't have it now)
- He told me his name, but I've forgotten it. (= I can't remember it now)
- Is David here? No He's gone out. (He is out now)
- I can't find my bag. Have you seen it? (Do you know where it is now?)
You can use the present perfect with just, already and yet.
Just = a short time ago:
- 'Are you hungry?' No, I've just had lunch.
- Hello. Have you just arrived?
We use already to say that something happened sooner than expected:
- Don't forget to send the letter. I've already sent it.
- What time is Mark leaving. He's already gone.
Yet - until now. Yet shows that the speaker is expecting something to happen. Use yet only in questions and negative sentences:
- Has it stopped raining yet?
- I've written the letter, but I haven't sent it yet.
Note the difference between gone (to) and been (to) :
- David is on holiday. He has gone to Italy. (= he is there now or on his way there)
- Olivia is back home now. She has been to Italy. (= she has now come back)
Read the situations and write sentences. Use the following verbs:
arrive break fall go up grow improve lose
- Charles is looking for his key. He can't find it.
- David can't walk and her leg is in plaster.
- Last week the bus fare was 80 dollars. Now it is 90.
The bus fare _____________________________________
- Olivia's English wasn't very good. Now it is better.
Her English ______________________________________
- David didn't have a beard before. Now he has a beard.
- This morning I was expecting a letter.
The letter _______________________________________
- The temperature was 20 degrees. Now it is only 12.
Complete B's sentences. Use the verb in brackets + just/already/yet.
- Would you like something to eat? (I/just/have/lunch)
No, thanks. _________________________________
- Do you know where Olivia is? (I/just/see/her)
- What time is David leaving? (he/already/leave)
- What's in the newspaper today? (I / not / read / it yet)
I don't know ________________________________
- Is Brad coming to the cinema with us? (she/already/see/the film)
- Are your friends here yet? (they / just / arrive)
- What does David think about your plan? (we /not /tell/ him yet)
Read the situations and write sentences with just, already or yet.
- After lunch you go to see a friend at her house. She says, 'Would you like something to eat?'
You say : No thank you. ________________________ (have lunch)
- Charles goes out. Five minutes later, the phone rings and the caller says, 'Can I speak to Charles?'
You say : I'm afraid ___________________________ (go out)
- You are eating in a restaurant. The waiter thinks you have finished and starts to take your plate away.
You say : Wait a minute! _______________________ (not / finish)
- You are going to a restaurant tonight. You phone to reserve a table. Later your friend says, 'Shall I phone to reserve a table.
You say: No, ___________________________________ (do it)
- You know that a friend of yours is looking for a place to live. Perhaps she has been successful.
Ask her. You say: ______________________________? (find)
- You are still thinking about where to go for your holiday. A friend asks. Where are you going for your holiday?
You say: ________________________________________(not/decide)
- Linda went to the bank, but a few minutes ago she returned. Somebody asks,'Is Linda still at the bank?'
You say : No, ___________________________________(come back)
Put in been or gone.
- David is on holiday. He's __________ to Italy.
- Hello! I've just __________ to the shops. I've bought lots of things.
- Olivia isn't here at the moment. She's ____________ to the shop to get a newspaper.
- Brad has __________ out. He'll be back in about an hour.
- Are you going to the bank? No, I've already __________ to the bank.