Present perfect 1

Example situation :
David is looking for his key. He can't find it.
He has lost his key.
He has lost his key = He lost it recently, and he still doesn't have it.
Have/has lost is the present perfect simple:

I / we / they / you have (= I've)
he / she / it has (=He's)

finished, lost, done, been

The present perfect simple is have/has + past participle. The past participle often ends in -ed (finished/decided), but many important verbs are irregular (lost/done/written).

When we use the present perfect, there is a connection with now. The action in the past has a result now:

  • Where's your key? I don't know. I've lost it. (= I don't have it now)
  • He told me his name, but I've forgotten it. (= I can't remember it now)
  • Is David here? No He's gone out. (He is out now)
  • I can't find my bag. Have you seen it? (Do you know where it is now?)

You can use the present perfect with just, already and yet.

Just = a short time ago:

  • 'Are you hungry?' No, I've just had lunch.
  • Hello. Have you just arrived?

We use already to say that something happened sooner than expected:

  • Don't forget to send the letter. I've already sent it.
  • What time is Mark leaving. He's already gone.

Yet - until now. Yet shows that the speaker is expecting something to happen. Use yet only in questions and negative sentences:

  • Has it stopped raining yet?
  • I've written the letter, but I haven't sent it yet.

Note the difference between gone (to) and been (to) :

  • David is on holiday. He has gone to Italy. (= he is there now or on his way there)
  • Olivia is back home now. She has been to Italy. (= she has now come back)


Read the situations and write sentences. Use the following verbs:
arrive break fall go up grow improve lose

  1. Charles is looking for his key. He can't find it.
  2. David can't walk and her leg is in plaster.
    He _______________________________________________
  3. Last week the bus fare was 80 dollars. Now it is 90.
    The bus fare _____________________________________
  4. Olivia's English wasn't very good. Now it is better.
    Her English ______________________________________
  5. David didn't have a beard before. Now he has a beard.
    He _______________________________________________
  6. This morning I was expecting a letter.
    The letter _______________________________________
  7. The temperature was 20 degrees. Now it is only 12.
    The ______________________________________________
Complete B's sentences. Use the verb in brackets + just/already/yet.
  1. Would you like something to eat? (I/just/have/lunch)
    No, thanks. _________________________________
  2. Do you know where Olivia is? (I/just/see/her)
    Yes, ________________________________________
  3. What time is David leaving? (he/already/leave)

  1. What's in the newspaper today? (I / not / read / it yet)
    I don't know ________________________________
  2. Is Brad coming to the cinema with us? (she/already/see/the film)
    No, _________________________________________
  3. Are your friends here yet? (they / just / arrive)
    Yes, ________________________________________
  4. What does David think about your plan? (we /not /tell/ him yet)

Read the situations and write sentences with just, already or yet.
  1. After lunch you go to see a friend at her house. She says, 'Would you like something to eat?'
    You say : No thank you. ________________________ (have lunch)
  2. Charles goes out. Five minutes later, the phone rings and the caller says, 'Can I speak to Charles?'
    You say : I'm afraid ___________________________ (go out)
  3. You are eating in a restaurant. The waiter thinks you have finished and starts to take your plate away.
    You say : Wait a minute! _______________________ (not / finish)
  4. You are going to a restaurant tonight. You phone to reserve a table. Later your friend says, 'Shall I phone to reserve a table.
    You say: No, ___________________________________ (do it)
  5. You know that a friend of yours is looking for a place to live. Perhaps she has been successful.
    Ask her. You say: ______________________________? (find)
  6. You are still thinking about where to go for your holiday. A friend asks. Where are you going for your holiday?
    You say: ________________________________________(not/decide)
  7. Linda went to the bank, but a few minutes ago she returned. Somebody asks,'Is Linda still at the bank?'
    You say : No, ___________________________________(come back)
Put in been or gone.
  1. David is on holiday. He's __________ to Italy.
  2. Hello! I've just __________ to the shops. I've bought lots of things.
  3. Olivia isn't here at the moment. She's ____________ to the shop to get a newspaper.
  4. Brad has __________ out. He'll be back in about an hour.
  5. Are you going to the bank? No, I've already __________ to the bank.